The objective of this project is to gain
knowledge about the components of reinforced concrete buildings, the
difference between them and bearing wall buildings, and the loads to which
such buildings are subjected. The gained knowledge will be applied in
building a Skeleton Reinforced Concrete Model.
Scope of the Project
The scope of the project includes two types
of structural systems of buildings, the skeleton concrete building, and
the bearing wall buildings.
A Comparison Between
Skeleton Concrete Buildings and Bearing Wall Buildings
The following information has been
collected from Internet resources.
A- Structural Elements:
i- Plain concrete base resting on the soil layers.
ii- Reinforced concrete base resting on the plain concrete base.
iii- Reinforced concrete smells joint the reinforced concrete bases.
- Columns: They are made of reinforced
concrete and they rest on the reinforced concrete base and extend
vertically to the level of the ground floor ceiling.
- Beams : They are made of reinforced
concrete and they rest on the columns at each floor level.
- Floor Slab: It is made of reinforced
concrete and it rests on the beams at each floor.
- Stairs: They are made of reinforced
concrete and they connect each two floor levels.
B- Non-Structural Elements:
- The Walls: They are made of masonry or
brick and are used to fill the openings between columns.
- Doors and windows: They are made of
different materials such as wood, steel, glass, and so on.
- Floor finishing: Tiles of ground as
ceramic or wood covering
- Wall finishing: Painting, plastering,
wall paper and so on
- It can be constructed with any number of
floors according to the bearing capacity of the soil.
- Openings as windows or doors can be made
with any width and height.
- Walls between columns can be removed for
- Buildings can not resist the temperature
and moisture effect due to the small thickness of walls.
- It is much effected by earthquake loads.
Bearing Wall Type
In this type of buildings the live and dead
loads come from the ceiling and the beams to the wall. Then, they reach
the underneath continous base which distributes the upper weight to the
available layer of soil. On the other hand we can conclude that the
thickness of walls increases as we come near to the base.
A- Structural Elements:
Flooring slab, Beams, Brick walls, Stairs, and
B- Non Structural Elements:
Doors, Windows, and finishing materials.
- A good insulator of sound and
temperature due to itís thickness.
- It is low in cost compared to the
skeleton concrete buildings.
- The building works as one unit so it
reduces the effect of earthquakes.
- It can give large open space because
there are no columns that disturb the furniture.
- You can not make any changes in the
building like removing any wall
- You can not construct more than five or
six floors only
- The thickness of the wall is too big so
it reduces the inner space in rooms.
- Wide openings can weak the building.
The types of loads affecting the buildings
can be summarized in the following:
- Dead Loads: weight of the structural and
non-structural elements, finishing weight, and any fixed elements.
- Live Loads: weight of residential people
and furniture and any moving loads.
- Wind Loads: Effect of the pressure of
wind on the whole building especially, in a windy area.
- Earthquake Loads: Effect of the
horizontal and vertical forces resulting from earthquake motions.
An illustrative model was made to
demonstrate the structural and non-structural elements of a reinforced
concrete building. The model is of a villa of two floors ground, and
first, with scale equal to 25: 1.
The model was built using the following material: Wood (Palse type), foam,
Cardboard, Glue material and color spray.
The model is shown in the photographs
presented with this report.
We would like to express our thanks, and
deepest gratitude to Dr. Nasr Zenhom Hassan, Professor of Reinforced
Concrete in the Faculty of Engineering, Mataria, Helwan University, Cairo
- Egypt for his guidance and valuable help while working in this project.
The Project Reviewers
Brad Roscoe, Robert Young, Short Allerton