|What is Caricature?|
Caricature is a representation of someone or
something in a drawing or painting , by which parts of their character or
appearance are made more noticeable, odd, or amusing than they really are.
According to B. Vipper, there are three main features of any caricature:
1. Exaggerated emphasis on ugliness, hideousness, meanness, etc.
2. Highlighting of unnatural abnormalities are allowed within certain limits.
3. Any caricature should have some resemblance to a human being even if it does not represent a person.
We and the world around us are shown by a caricaturist from unexpected and witty point of view. The level of its witticism reflects , by its own way, the spiritual and intellectual life of the definite people, society, and epoch. Any caricature is the way of thinking, an illustration of the time; it can be created only in developed society, because only sound, healthy, and strong people can laugh at themselves.
At the same time a caricature can be a complicated code, a kind of Aesopian language. A caricature can be evil and kind, sharply satirical and humorous. Humour is neither a sermonizing preacher nor a garbage collector, although these activities are always attributed to it. To understand the caricaturist's idea, one should have at least a bit of sense of humour, be ready to smile, to laugh. The difference between any animal and a human being is the human sense of humour.
It is interesting to know, but Adam and Eve did not laugh in their Paradise. Probably, laughter is the result of the original sin, and the Tempter' s appearance and behaviour caused the birth of the sense of humour. The birth of smile, the work of the ''virus of laughter'' is wonderfully shown by H. Bidstrup , the author of cartoon strips ''Classical Humour'', ''Caricature''. ''The Virus of Laughter'', and ''A Humorous Story''.
Where is a caricaturist from? In his childhood, F. Goya painted Virgin Mary with blue moustache .and Joseph smoking a pipe, so he was punished. This incident did not change his career. Caricaturists are not made, they are born. Caricaturists are producers, directors, and artists. They do not need any studio, special gear, or enthusiastic audience. They can not do without only two things: a sheet of paper and a pencil. Any caricaturist chooses his/her own way in art, but whatever direction he/she has chosen, an artist should remember about punishment -incomprehension of common people, or even a state. If a state does not understand a caricaturist, he/she can be thrown into prison, like O.Daumier or G. Gross. The path of any caricaturist is not cakes and ale. There are a lot of trails on the way of an author of ''humorous changes and satirical cataclysms''.
Modern caricature ( problem graphics) is a specific combination of
widely-known symbols, so V. Bogorad made an attempt to classify it:
"Aesopian"( animals like symbols of human nature and intelligence
peculiarities ), mythical ( symbols brought from legends and myths of
ancient Greece and Rome), medieval ( death, king, jester, knight,
executioner), pictographic, etc. In other words, caricature can be
distinguished as an up-to-the -minute picture.