|Menninger, Karl Augustus (1893-1990)|
Menninger, Karl Augustus , 1893–1990, and William Claire Menninger,1899–1966, American psychiatrists, brothers, b. Topeka, Kans. The Menninger Clinic, conceived with the idea of collecting many specialists in one center, was founded in Topeka in 1920 by Karl and his father, Charles Frederick (1862–1953); in 1926 they were joined by William. The Menninger Foundation, established for research, training, and public education in psychiatry, came into existence in 1941 and soon became a U.S. psychiatric center. At the close of World War II, Karl Menninger was instrumental in founding the Winter Veterans' Administration Hospital, Topeka, which functioned as a mental hospital and as the center of the largest psychiatric training program in the world. The Center for Applied Behavioral Sciences was established by the foundation in 1974 in order to provide government and business with up-to-date information regarding human behavior.
See K. Menninger's The Vital Balance (1963) and Whatever Became of Sin? (1973, repr. 1988) and H. J. Faulkner and V. Pruitt, ed., The Selected Correspondence of Karl A. Menninger, 1919–1945 (1989) and The Selected Correspondence of Karl A. Menninger, 1946–1965 (1995); W. Menninger's Psychiatry in a Troubled World (1948) and A Psychiatrist for a Troubled World (1967).