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The Metallic Bond
Metal atoms contain outermost electrons that are much more easily removed than the outermost electrons in nonmetal atoms. In a metal, each atom gives up one or more valence electrons to become a cation.
The valence electrons from all of the atoms form what has been called an "electron sea" that surrounds a network of metal cations. The freed valence electrons no longer "belong" to specific atoms.
Metallic bonding is the attraction between positive metal ions and surrounding, freely mobile electrons.
Representative metal atoms contribute their outermost s electrons or s and p electrons to the sea of free electrons. In transition metals some of the (n-1)d electrons can also join the electron sea.
The Ionic Bond
Ionic bonding is the attraction between positive and negative ions. Ionic compounds are simply collections of ions held together by the force of electrostatic attraction between cations and anions.
Independent molecules do not exist in ionic compounds and in the solid-state the ions occupy fixed positions in a crystal lattice.
(1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1) Na + Cl (1s2 2p2 2p6 3s 2 3p5) ® (1s2 2s2 2p6) Na+ Cl- (1s2 2s2 2p 6 3s2 3p6)