1 Latin | Satire
1 English | Satire
2 Latin | Satire
2 English | Satire
Juvenal: Satire 3 Latin | Satire
| Satire 3 English/Latin
THE SATIRES OF JUVENAL
QUID ROMAE FACIAM?
digressu veteris confusus amici
laudo tamen, vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis
destinet atque unum civem donare Sibyllae.
ianua Baiarum est et gratum litus amoeni
5 secessus. ego vel Prochytam praepono Suburae;
nam quid tam miserum, tam solum vidimus, ut non
deterius credas horrere incendia, lapsus
tectorum adsiduos ac mille pericula saevae
urbis et Augusto recitantes mense poetas?
THOUGH put out by the departure
of my old friend, I commend his purpose to fix his home at
Cumae, and to present one citizen to the Sibyl. That is the
gate of Baiae, a sweet retreat upon a pleasant shore; I myself
would prefer even Prochyta to the Subura! For where
has one ever seen a place so dismal and so lonely that one
would not deem it worse to live in perpetual dread of fires
and falling houses, and the thousand perils of this terrible
city, and poets spouting in the month of August!
| 10 Sed
dum tota domus raeda componitur una,
substitit ad veteres arcus madidamque Capenam.
hic, ubi nocturnae Numa constituebat amicae,
nune sacri fontis nemus et delubra locantur
Iudaeis, quorum cophinus faenumque supellex
15 (omnis enim populo mercedem pendere iussa est
arbor et eiectis mendicat silva Camenis).
in vallem Egeriae descendimus et speluncas
dissimiles veris. quanto praesentius esset
numen aquis, viridi si margine clauderet undas
20 herba, nec ingenuum violarent marmora tofum.
10 But while all his goods and
chattels were being packed upon a single wagon, my friend
halted at the dripping archway of the old Porta Capena.
Here Numa held his nightly assignations with his mistress;
but now the holy fount and grove and shrine are let out to
Jews, who possess a basket and a truss of hay for all their
furnishings. For as every tree nowadays has to pay toll to
the people, the Muses have been ejected, and the wood has
to go a-begging. We go down to the Valley of Egeria, and into
the caves so unlike to nature: how much more near to us would
be the spirit of the fountain if its waters were fringed by
a green border of grass, and there were no marble to outrage
the native tufa!
| Hic tunc
Vmbricius "quando artibus," inquit, "honestis
nullus in urbe locus, nulla emolumenta laborum,
res hodie minor est here quam fuit atque eadem cras
deteret exiguis aliquid, proponimus illuc
25 ire, fatigatas ubi Daedalus exuit alas,
dum nova canities, dum prima et recta senectus,
dum superest Lachesi quod torqueat et pedibus me
porto meis nullo dextram subeunte bacillo.
cedamus patria. vivant Artorius istic
30 et Catulus, maneant qui nigrum in candida vertunt,
quis facile est aedem conducere flumina portus,
siccandam eluviem, portandum ad busta cadaver,
et praebere caput domina venale sub hasta.
quondam hi cornicines et municipalis harenae
35 perpetui comites notaeque per oppida buccae
munera nunc edunt et, verso pollice vulgus
quem iubet, occidunt populariter; unde reversi
conducunt foricas, et cur non omnia, cum sint
quales ex humili magna ad fastigia rerum
40 extollit quotiens voluit Fortuna iocari ?
21 Here spoke Umbricius:- "Since
there is no room," quoth he, "for honest callings
in this city, no reward for labour; since my means are less
to-day than they were yesterday, and to-morrow will rub off
something from the little that is left, I purpose to go to
the place where Daedalus put off his weary wings while my
white hairs are recent, while my old age is erect and fresh,
while Lachesis has something left to spin, and I can support
myself on my own feet without slipping a staff beneath my
hand. Farewell my country! Let Artorius live there, and Catulus;
let those remain who turn black into white, to whom it comes
easy to take contracts for temples, rivers or harbours, for
draining floods, or carrying corpses to the pyre, or to put
up slaves for sale under the authority of the spear. These
men once were horn-blowers, who went the round of every provincial
show, and whose puffed-out cheeks were known in every village;
to-day they hold shows of their own, and win applause by slaying
whomsoever the mob with a turn of the thumb bids them slay;
from that they go back to contract for cesspools, and why
not for any kind of thing, seeing that they are of the kind
that Fortune raises from the gutter to the mighty places of
earth whenever she wishes to enjoy a laugh?
Romae faciam? mentiri nescio; librum,
si malus est, nequeo laudare et poscere; motus
astrorum ignoro; funus promittere patris
nec volo nec possum; ranarum viscera numquam
45 inspexi; ferre ad nuptam quae mittit adulter,
quae mandat, norunt alii; me nemo ministro
fur erit, atque ideo nulli comes exeo tamquam
mancus et extinctae corpus non utile dextrae.
quis nunc diligitur nisi conscius et cui fervens
50 aestuat occultis animus semperque tacendis?
nil tibi se debere putat, nil conferet umquam,
participem qui te secreti fecit honesti
carus erit Verri qui Verrem tempore quo vult
accusare potest. tanti tibi non sit opaci
55 omnis harena Tagi quodque in mare volvitur aurum,
ut somno careas ponendaque praemia sumas
tristis, et a magno semper timearis amico.
41 "What can I do at Rome?
I cannot lie; if a book is bad, I cannot praise it, and beg
for a copy; I am ignorant of the movements of the stars; I
cannot, and will not, promise to a man his father's death;
I have never examined the entrails of a frog; I must leave
it to others to carry to a bride the presents and messages
of a paramour. No man will get my help in robbery, and therefore
no governor will take me on his staff: I am treated as a maimed
and useless trunk that has lost the power of its hands. What
man wins favour nowadays unless he be an accomplice-one whose
soul seethes and burns with secrets that must never be disclosed?
No one who has imparted to you an innocent secret thinks he
owes you anything, or will ever bestow on you a favour; the
man whom Verres loves is the man who can impeach Verres at
any moment that he chooses. Ah! Let not all the sands of the
shaded Tagus, and the gold which it rolls into the sea, be
so precious in your eyes that you should lose your sleep,
and accept gifts, to your sorrow, which you must one day lay
down, and be for ever a terror to your mighty friend!
nunc divitibus gens acceptissima nostris
et quos praecipue fugiam, properabo fateri,
60 nec pudor opstabit. non possum ferre, Quirites,
Graecam urbem; quamvis quota potio faecis Achaei?
iam pridem Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Orontes,
et linguam et mores et cum tibicine chordas
obliquas nec non gentilia tympana secum
65 vexit et ad circum iussas prostare puellas.
ite, quibus grata est picta lupa barbara mitra!
rusticus ille tuus sumit trechedipna, Quirine,
et ceromatico fert niceteria collo.
hic alta Sicyone, ast hic Amydone relicta,
70 hic Andro, ille Samo, hic Trallibus aut Alabandis
Esquilias dictumque petunt a vimine collem,
viscera magnarum domuum dominique futuri.
ingenium velox, audacia perdita, sermo
promptus et Isaeo torrentior: ede quid illum
75 esse putes? quemvis hominem secum attulit ad nos:
grammaticus rhetor geometres pictor aliptes
augur schoenobates medicus magus: omnia novit
Graeculus esuriens; in caelum iusseris ibit.
in summa non Maurus erat neque Sarmata nec Thrax
80 qui sumpsit pinnas, mediis sed natus Athenis.
58 "And now let me speak
at once of the race which is most dear to our rich men, and
which I avoid above all others; no shyness shall stand in
my way. I cannot abide, Quirites, a Rome of Greeks; and yet
what fraction of our dregs comes from Greece? The Syrian Orontes
has long since poured into the Tiber, bringing with it its
lingo and its manners, its flutes and its slanting harp-strings;
bringing too the timbrels of the breed, and the trulls who
are bidden ply their trade at the Circus. Out upon you, all
ye that delight in foreign strumpets with painted headdresses!
Your country clown, Quirinus, now trips to dinner in Greek-fangled
slippers, and wears niceterian ornaments upon
a ceromatic neck! One comes from lofty Sicyon, another
from Amydon or Andros, others from Samos, Tralles or Alabanda;
all making for the Esquiline, or for the hill that takes its
name from osier-beds; all ready to worm their way into
the houses of the great and become their masters. Quick of
wit and of unbounded impudence, they are as ready of speech
as Isaeus, and more torrential. Say, what do you think
that fellow there to be? He has brought with him any character
you please; grammarian, orator, geometrician; painter, trainer,
or rope-dancer; augur, doctor or astrologer:-
'All sciences a fasting monsieur knows,
And bid him go to Hell, to Hell he goes!
In fine, the man who took to himself wings was not a Moor,
nor a Sarmatian, nor a Thracian, but one born in the very
heart of Athens!
ego non fugiam conchylia? me prior ille
signabit fultusque toro meliore recumbet,
advectus Romam quo pruna et cottona vento?
usque adeo nihil est, quod nostra infantia caelum
85 hausit Aventini baca nutrita Sabina?
81 "Must I not make my escape
from purple-clad gentry like these? Is a man to sign his name
before me, and recline upon a couch better than mine, who
has been wafted to Rome by the wind which brings us our damsons
and our figs? Is it to go so utterly for nothing that as a
babe I drank in the air of the Aventine, and was nurtured
on the Sabine berry?
quod adulandi gens prudentissima laudat
sermonem indocti, faciem deformis amici,
et longum invalidi collum cervicibus aequat
Herculis Antaeum procul a tellure tenentis,
90 miratur vocem angustam, qua deterius nec
ille sonat quo mordetur gallina marito?
haec eadem licet et nobis laudare, sed illis
creditur. an melior, cum Thaida sustinet aut
cum uxorem comoedus agit vel Dorida nullo
95 cultam palliolo? mulier nempe ipsa videtur,
non persona, loqui; vacua et plana omnia dicas
infra ventriculum et tenui distantia rima.
nec tamen Antiochus nec erit mirabilis illic
aut Stratocles aut cum molli Demetrius Haemo
100 natio comoeda est. rides, maiore cachinno
concutitur; flet, si lacrimas conspexit amici,
nec dolet; igniculum brumae si tempore poscas,
accipit endromidem; si dixeris 'aestuo,' sudat.
non sumus ergo pares: melior, qui semper et omni
105 nocte dieque potest aliena sumere vultum
a facie, iactare manus, laudare paratus,
si bene ructavit, si rectum minxit amicus,
si trulla inverso crepitum dedit aurea fundo.
86 "What of this again,
that these people are experts in flattery, and will commend
the talk of an illiterate, or the beauty of a deformed, friend,
and compare the scraggy neck of some weakling to the brawny
throat of Hercules when holding up Antaeus high above
the earth; or go into ecstasies over a squeaky voice not more
melodious than that of a cock when he pecks his spouse the
hen? We, no doubt, can praise the same things that they do;
but what they say is believed. Could any actor do better when
he plays the part of Thais, or of a matron, or of a Greek
slave-girl without her pallium? You would never think that
it was a masked actor that was speaking, but a very woman,
complete in all her parts. Yet, in their own country, neither
Antiochus nor Stratocles, neither Demetrius  nor
the delicate Haemus, will be applauded: they are a nation
of play-actors. If you smile, your Greek will split his sides
with laughter; if he sees his friend drop a tear, he weeps,
though without grieving; if you call for a bit of fire in
winter-time, he puts on his cloak; if you say 'I am hot,'
he breaks into a sweat. Thus we are not upon a level, he and
I; he has always the best of it, being ready at any moment,
by night or by day, to take his expression from another man's
face, to throw up his hands and applaud if his friend gives
a good belch or piddles straight, or if his golden basin make
a gurgle when turned upside down.
sanctum nihil est neque ab inguine tutum,
110 non matrona laris, non filia virgo, neque ipse
sponsus levis adhuc, non filius ante pudicus;
horum si nihil est, aviam resupinat amici.
scire volunt secreta domus atque inde timeri
et quoniam coepit Graecorum mentio, transi
115 gymnasia atque audi facinus maioris abollae.
Stoicus occidit Baream delator amicum
discipulumque senex, ripa nutritus in illa,
ad quam Gorgonei delapsa est pinna caballi.
non est Romano cuiquam locus hic, ubi regnat
120 Protogenes aliquis vel Diphilus aut Hermarchus,
qui gentis vitio numquam partitur amicum,
solus habet. nam cum facilem stillavit in aurem
exiguum de naturae patriaeque veneno,
limine summoveor, perierunt tempora longi
125 servitii; nusquam minor est iactura clientis.
109 "Besides all this, there
is nothing sacred to his lusts: not the matron of the family,
nor the maiden daughter, not the as yet unbearded son-in-law
to be, not even the as yet unpolluted son; if none of these
be there, he will debauch his friend's grandmother. These
men want to discover the secrets of the family, and so make
themselves feared. And now that I am speaking of the Greeks,
pass over the schools, and hear of a crime of a larger philosophical
cloak; the old Stoic who informed against and slew his
own friend and disciple Barea was born on that river bank
where the Gorgon's winged steed fell to earth. No: there is
no room for any Roman here, where some Protogenes, or Diphilus,
or Hermarchus rules the roast--one who by a defect of his
race never shares a friend, but keeps him all to himself.
For when once he has dropped into a facile ear one particle
of his own and his country's poison, I am thrust from the
door, and all my long years of servitude go for nothing. Nowhere
is it so easy as at Rome to throw an old client overboard.
porro officium, ne nobis blandiar, aut quod
pauperis hic meritum, si curet nocte togatus
currere, cum praetor lictorem impellat et ire
praecipitem iubeat dudum vigilantibus orbis,
130 ne prior Albinam et Modiam collega salutet?
divitis hic servo claudit latus ingenuorum
filius; alter enim quantum in legione tribuni
accipiunt donat Calvinae vel Catienae,
ut semel aut iterum super illam palpitet; at tu,
135 cum tibi vestiti facies scorti placet, haeres
et dubitas alta Chionen deducere sella.
da testem Romae tam sanctum quam fuit hospes
numinis Idaei, procedat vel Numa vel qui
servavit trepidam flagranti ex aede Minervam
140 protinus ad censum, de moribus ultima fiet
quaestio. 'quot pascit servos? quot possidet agri
iugera? quam multa magnaque paropside cenat? '
quantum quisque sua nummorum servat in arca,
tantum habet et fidei. iures licet et Samothracum
126 "And besides, not to
flatter ourselves, what value is there in a poor man's serving
here in Rome, even if he be at pains to hurry along in his
toga before daylight, seeing that the praetor is bidding the
lictor to go full speed lest his colleague should be the first
to salute the childless ladies Albina and Modia, who have
long ago been awake? Here in Rome the son of free-born parents
has to give the wall to some rich man's slave; for that other
will give as much as the whole pay of a legionary tribune
to enjoy the chance favours of a Calvina or a Catiena,
while you, when the face of some gay-decked harlot takes your
fancy, scarce venture to hand Chione down from her lofty chair.
At Rome you may produce a witness as unimpeachable as the
host of the Idaean Goddess.--Numa himself might present
himself, or he who rescued the trembling Minerva from the
blazing shrine--the first question asked will be as to
his wealth, the last about his character: 'how many slaves
does he keep?' 'how many acres does he own?' 'how big and
how many are his dessert dishes?' A man's word is believed
in exact proportion to the amount of cash which he keeps in
his strong-box. Though he swear by all the altars of Samothrace
or of Rome, the poor man is believed to care naught for Gods
and thunderbolts, the Gods themselves forgiving him.
| 145 et
nostrorum aras, contemnere fulmina pauper
creditur atque deos dis ignoscentibus ipsis.
"Quid quod materiam praebet causasque iocorum
omnibus hic idem, si foeda et scissa lacerna,
si toga sordidula est et rupta calceus alter
150 pelle patet, vel si consuto vulnere crassum
atque recens linum ostendit non una cicatrix?
nil habet infelix paupertas durius in se,
quam quod ridiculos homines facit. 'exeat,' inquit,
'si pudor est, et de pulvino surgat equestri
155 cuius res legi non sufficit, et sedeant hic
lenonum pueri quocumque ex fornice nati;
hic plaudat nitidi praeconis filius inter
pinnirapi cultos iuvenes iuvenesque lanistae':
sic libitum vano, qui nos distinxit, Othoni.
160 quis gener hic placuit censu minor atque puellae
sarcinulis impar? quis pauper scribitur heres?
quando in consilio est aedilibus? agmine facto
debuerant olim tenues migrasse Quirites.
145 'And what of this, that the
poor man gives food and occasion for jest if his cloak be
torn and dirty; if his toga be a little soiled; if one of
his shoes gapes where the leather is split, or if some fresh
stitches of coarse thread reveal where not one, but many a
rent has been patched? Of all the woes of luckless poverty
none is harder to endure than this, that it exposes men to
ridicule. 'Out you go! for very shame,' says the marshal;
'out of the Knights' stalls, all of you whose means do not
satisfy the law.' Here let the sons of panders, born in any
brothel, take their seats; here let the spruce son of an auctioneer
clap his hands, with the smart sons of a gladiator on one
side of him and the young gentlemen of a trainer on the other:
such was the will of the numskull Otho who assigned to each
of us his place. Who ever was approved as a son-in-law
if he was short of cash, and no match for the money-bags of
the young lady? What poor man ever gets a legacy, or is appointed
assessor to an aedile? Romans without money should have marched
out in a body long ago!
facile emergunt quorum virtutibus opstat
165 res angusta domi, sed Romae durior illis
conatus: magno hospitium miserabile, magno
servorum ventres, et frugi cenula magno.
fictilibus cenare pudet, quod turpe negabis
translatus subito ad Marsos mensamque Sabellam
170 contentusque illic Veneto duroque cucullo.
164 "It is no easy matter,
anywhere, for a man to rise when poverty stands in the way
of his merits: but nowhere is the effort harder than in Rome,
where you must pay a big rent for a wretched lodging, a big
sum to fill the bellies of your slaves, and buy a frugal dinner
for yourself. You are ashamed to dine off delf; but you would
see no shame in it if transported suddenly to a Marsian or
Sabine table, where you would be pleased enough to wear a
cape of coarse Venetian blue.
magna ltaliae est, si verum admittimus, in qua
nemo togam sumit nisi mortuus. ipsa dierum
festorum herboso colitur si quando theatro
maiestas tandemque redit ad pulpita notum
175 exodium, cum personae pallentis hiatum
in gremio matris formidat rusticus infans,
aequales habitus illic similesque videbis
orchestram et populum, clari velamen honoris
sufficient tunicae summis aedilibus albae.
180 hic ultra vires habitus nitor, hic aliquid plus
quam satis est interdum aliena sumitur arca.
commune id vitium est, hic vivimus ambitiosa
paupertate omnes. quid te moror? omnia Romae
cum pretio. quid das, ut Cossum aliquando salutes,
185 ut te respiciat clauso Veiento labello?
ille metit barbam, crinem hic deponit amati;
plena domus libis venalibus; accipe, et istud
fermentum tibi habe: praestare tributa clientes
cogimur et cultis augere peculia servis.
171 "There are many parts
of Italy, to tell the truth, in which no man puts on a toga
until he is dead. Even on days of festival, when a brave show
is made in a theatre of turf, and when the well-known afterpiece
steps once more upon the boards; when the rustic babe on its
mother's breast shrinks back affrighted at the gaping of the
pallid masks, you will see stalls and populace all dressed
alike, and the worshipful aediles content with white tunics
as vesture for their high office. In Rome, every one dresses
smartly, above his means, and sometimes something more than
what is enough is taken out of another man's pocket. This
failing is universal here: we all live in a state of pretentious
poverty. To put it shortly, nothing can be had in Rome for
nothing. How much does it cost you to be able now and then
to make your bow to Cossus? Or to be vouchsafed one glance,
with lip firmly closed, from Veiento? One of these great men
is cutting off his beard; another is dedicating the locks
of a favourite; the house is full of cakes--which you will
have to pay for. Take your cake, and let this thought
rankle in your heart: we clients are compelled to pay tribute
and add to a sleek menial's perquisites.
| 190 "Quis
timet aut timuit gelida Praeneste ruinam
aut positis nemorosa inter iuga Volsiniis aut
simplicibus Gabiis aut proni Liburis arce?
nos urbem colimus tenui tibicine fultam
magna parte sui; nam sic labentibus obstat
195 vilicus et, veteris rimae cum texit hiatum,
securos pendente iubet dormire ruina.
vivendum est illic ubi nulla incendia, nulli
nocte metus. iam poscit aquam, iam frivola transfert
Vcalegon, tabulata tibi iam tertia fumant
200 tu nescis; nam si gradibus trepidatur ab imis,
ultimus ardebit quem tegula sola tuetur
a pluvia, molles ubi reddunt ova columbae.
lectus erat Codro Procula minor, urceoli sex
ornamentum abaci nec non et parvulus infra
205 cantharus et recubans sub eodem marmore Chiron,
iamque vetus graecos servabat cista libellos
et divina opici rodebant carmina mures.
nil habuit Codrus, quis enim negat? et tamen illud
perdidit infelix totum nihil. ultimus autem
210 aerumnae est cumulus, quod nudum et frusta rogantem
nemo cibo, nemo hospitio tectoque iuvabit.
190 "Who at cool Praeneste,
or at Volsinii amid its leafy hills, was ever afraid of his
house tumbling down? Who in modest Gabii, or on the sloping
heights of Tivoli? But here we inhabit a city supported for
the most part by slender props: for that is how the bailiff
holds up the tottering house, patches up gaping cracks in
the old wall, bidding the inmates sleep at ease under a roof
ready to tumble about their ears. No, no, I must live where
there are no fires, no nightly alarms. Ucalegon below
is already shouting for water and shifting his chattels; smoke
is pouring out of your third-floor attic, but you know nothing
of it; for if the alarm begins in the ground-floor, the last
man to burn will be he who has nothing to shelter him from
the rain but the tiles, where the gentle doves lay their eggs.
Codrus possessed a bed too small for the dwarf Procula, a
sideboard adorned by six pipkins, with a small drinking cup,
and a recumbent Chiron below, and an old chest containing
Greek books whose divine lays were being gnawed by unlettered
mice. Poor Codrus had nothing, it is true: but he lost that
nothing, which was his all; and the last straw in his heap
of misery is this, that though he is destitute and begging
for a bite, no one will help him with a meal, no one offer
him lodging or shelter.
magna Asturici cecidit domus, horrida mater,
pullati proceres, differt vadimonia praetor.
tunc gemimus casus urbis, tunc odimus ignem.
215 ardet adhuc, et iam accurrit qui marmora donet,
conferat inpensas; hic nuda et candida signa,
hic aliquid praeclarum Euphranoris et Polycliti,
hic Asianorum vetera ornamenta deorum,
hic libros dabit et forulos mediamque Minervam,
220 hic modium argenti. meliora ac plura reponit
Persicus, orborum lautissimus et merito iam
suspectus tamquam ipse suas incenderit aedes.
212 "But if the grand house
of Asturicus be destroyed, the matrons go dishevelled, your
great men put on mourning, the praetor adjourns his court:
then indeed do we deplore the calamities of the city, and
bewail its fires! Before the house has ceased to burn, up
comes one with a gift of marble or of building materials,
another offers nude and glistening statues, a third some notable
work of Euphranor or Polyclitus, or bronzes that had been
the glory of old Asian shrines. Others will offer books and
bookcases, or a bust of Minerva, or a hundredweight of silver-plate.
Thus does Persicus, that most sumptuous of childless men,
replace what he has lost with more and better things, and
with good reason incurs the suspicion of having set his own
house on fire.
potes avelli circensibus, optima Sorae
aut Fabrateriae domus aut Frusinone paratur
225 quanti nunc tenebras unum conducis in annum.
hortulus hic puteusque brevis nec reste movendus
in tenuis plantas facili diffunditur haustu.
vive bidentis amans et culti vilicus horti,
unde epulum possis centum dare Pythagoreis.
230 est aliquid, quocumque loco, quocumque recessu
unius sese dominum fecisse lacertae.
223 "If you can tear yourself
away from the games of the Circus, you can buy an excellent
house at Sora, at Fabrateria or Frusino, for what you now
pay in Rome to rent a dark garret for one year. And you will
there have a little garden, with a shallow well from which
you can easily draw water, without need of a rope, to bedew
your weakly plants. There make your abode, a friend of the
mattock, tending a trim garden fit to feast a hundred Pythagoreans.
It is something, in whatever spot, however remote, to have
become the possessor of a single lizard!
hic aeger moritur vigilando (set ipsum
languorem peperit cibus inperfectus et haerens
ardenti stomacho), nam quae meritoria somnum
235 admittunt? magnis opibus dormitur in urbe.
inde caput morbi. raedarum transitus arto
vicorum in flexu et stantis convicia mandrae
eripient somnum Druso vitulisque marinis.
si vocat officium, turba cedente vehetur
240 dives et ingenti curret super ora Liburna
atque obiter leget aut scribet vel dormiet intus;
namque facit somnum clausa lectica fenestra.
ante tamen veniet: nobis properantibus opstat
unda prior, magno populus premit agmine lumbos
245 qui sequitur; ferit hic cubito, ferit assere duro
alter, at hic tignum capiti incutit, ille metretam.
pinguia crura luto, planta mox undique magna
calcor, et in digito clavus mihi militis haeret.
232 "Most sick people here
in Rome perish for want of sleep, the illness itself having
been produced by food lying undigested on a fevered stomach.
For what sleep is possible in a lodging? Who but the wealthy
get sleep in Rome? There lies the root of the disorder. The
crossing of wagons in the narrow winding streets, the slanging
of drovers when brought to a stand, would make sleep impossible
for a Drusus--or a sea-calf. When the rich man has a call
of social duty, the mob makes way for him as he is borne swiftly
over their heads in a huge Liburnian car. He writes or reads
or sleeps inside as he goes along, for the closed window of
the litter induces slumber. Yet he will arrive before us;
hurry as we may, we are blocked by a surging crowd in front,
and by a dense mass of people pressing in on us from behind:
one man digs an elbow into me, another a hard sedan-pole;
one bangs a beam, another a wine-cask, against my head. My
legs are beplastered with mud; soon huge feet trample on me
from every side, and a soldier plants his hobnails firmly
on my toe.
vides quanto celebretur sportula fumo?
250 centum convivae, sequitur sua quemque culina.
Corbulo vix ferret tot vasa ingentia, tot res
inpositas capiti, quas recto vertice portat
servulus infelix et cursu ventilat ignem.
scinduntur tunicae sartae modo, longa coruscat
255 serraco veniente abies, atque altera pinum
plaustra vehunt; nutant alte populoque minantur.
nam si procubuit qui saxa Ligustica portat
axis et eversum fudit super agmina montem,
quid superest de corporibus? quis membra, quis ossa
260 invenit? obtritum vulgi perit omne cadaver
more animae. domus interea secura patellas
iam lavat et bucca foculum excitat et sonat unctis
striglibus et pleno componit lintea guto.
haec inter pueros varie properantur, at ille
265 iam sedet in ripa taetrumque novicius horret
porthmea, nec sperat caenosi gurgitis alnum
infelix nec habet quem porrigat ore trientem.
249 "See now the smoke rising
from that crowd which hurries as if to a dole: there are a
hundred guests, each followed by a kitchener of his own.
Corbulo himself could scarce bear the weight of all the
big vessels and other gear which that poor little slave is
carrying with head erect, fanning the flame as he runs along.
Newly-patched tunics are torn in two; up comes a huge fir-log
swaying on a wagon, and then a second dray carrying a whole
pine-tree; they tower aloft and threaten the people. For if
that axle with its load of Ligurian marble breaks down, and
pours an overturned mountain on to the crowd, what is left
of their bodies? Who can identify the limbs, who the bones?
'The poor man's crushed corpse wholly disappears, just like
his soul. At home meanwhile the folk, unwitting, are washing
the dishes, blowing up the fire with distended cheek, clattering
over the greasy flesh-scrapers, filling the oil-flasks and
laying out the towels. And while each of them is thus busy
over his own task, their master is already sitting, a new
arrival, upon the bank, and shuddering at the grim ferryman:
he has no copper in his mouth to tender for his fare, and
no hope of a passage over the murky flood, poor wretch.
nunc alia ac diversa pericula noctis
quod spatium tectis sublimibus unde cerebrum
270 testa ferit, quotiens rimosa et curta fenestris
vasa cadant, quanto percussum pondere signent
et laedant silicem. possis ignavus haberi
et subiti casus inprovidus, ad cenam si
intestatus eas: adeo tot fata, quot illa
275 nocte patent vigiles te praetereunte fenestrae.
ergo optes votumque feras miserabile tecum,
ut sint contentae patulas defundere pelves.
268 "And now regard the
different and diverse perils of the night. See what a height
it is to that towering roof from which a potsherd comes crack
upon my head every time that some broken or leaky vessel is
pitched out of the window! See with what a smash it strikes
and dints the pavement! There's death in every open window
as you pass along at night; you may well be deemed a fool,
improvident of sudden accident, if you go out to dinner without
having made your will. You can but hope, and put up a piteous
prayer in your heart, that they may be content to pour down
on you the contents of their slop-basins!
ac petulans, qui nullum forte cecidit,
dat poenas, noctem patitur lugentis amicum
280 Pelidae, cubat in faciem, mox deinde supinus;
[ergo non aliter poterit dormire: quibusdam]
somnum rixa facit. sed quamvis improbus annis
atque mero fervens, cavet hunc, quem coccina laena
vitari iubet et comitum longissimus ordo,
285 multum praeterea flammarum et aenea lampas;
me, quem luna solet deducere vel breve lumen
candelae, cuius dispenso et tempero filum,
contemnit. miserae cognosce prohoemia rixae,
si rixa est, ubi tu pulsas, ego vapulo tantum.
290 stat contra starique iubet: parere necesse est;
nam quid agas, cum te furiosus cogat et idem
fortior? 'unde venis?', exclamat, 'cuius aceto,
cuius conche tumes? quis tecum sectile porrum
sutor et elixi vervecis labra comedit?
295 nil mihi respondes? aut dic aut accipe calcem.
ede ubi consistas; in qua te quaero proseucha?'
dicere si temptes aliquid tacitusve recedas,
tantumdem est: feriunt pariter, vadimonia deinde
irati faciunt. libertas pauperis haec est
300 pulsatus rogat et pugnis concisus adorat
ut liceat paucis cum dentibus inde reverti.
278 "Your drunken bully
who has by chance not slain his man passes a night of torture
like that of Achilles when he bemoaned his friend, lying now
upon his face, and now upon his back; he will get no rest
in any other way, since some men can only sleep after a brawl.
Yet however reckless the fellow may be, however hot with wine
and young blood, he gives a wide berth to one whose scarlet
cloak and long retinue of attendants, with torches and brass
lamps in their hands, bid him keep his distance. But to me,
who am wont to be escorted home by the moon, or by the scant
light of a candle whose wick I husband with due care, he pays
no respect. Hear how the wretched fray begins--if fray it
can be called when you do all the thrashing and I get all
the blows! The fellow stands up against me, and bids me halt;
obey I must. What else can you do when attacked by a madman
stronger than yourself? 'Where are you from?' shouts he; 'whose
vinegar, whose beans have blown you out? With what cobbler
have you been munching cut leeks and boiled wether's chaps?--What,
sirrah, no answer? Speak out, or take that upon your shins!
Say, where is your stand? In what prayer-shop shall I
find you?' Whether you venture to say anything, or make off
silently, it's all one: he will thrash you just the same,
and then, in a rage, take bail from you. Such is the liberty
of the poor man: having been pounded and cuffed into a jelly,
he begs and prays to be allowed to return home with a few
teeth in his head!
tamen haec tantum metuas. nam qui spoliet te
non derit clausis domibus, postquam omnis ubique
fixa catenatae siluit compago tabernae.
305 interdum et ferro subitus grassator agit rem;
armato quotiens tutae custode tenentur
et Pomptina palus et Gallinaria pinus,
sic inde huc omnes tamquam ad vivaria currunt.
qua fornace graves, qua non incude catenae?
310 maximus in vinclis ferri modus, ut timeas ne
vomer deficiat, ne marrae et sarcula desint.
felices proavorum atavos, felicia dicas
saecula quae quondam sub regibus atque tribunis
viderunt uno contentam carcere Romam.
302 "Nor are these your
only terrors. When your house is shut, when bar and chain
have made fast your shop, and all is silent, you will be robbed
by a burglar; or perhaps a cut-throat will do for you quickly
with cold steel. For whenever the Pontine marshes and the
Gallinarian forest are secured by an armed guard, all that
tribe flocks into Rome as into a fish-preserve. What furnaces,
what anvils, are not groaning with the forging of chains?
That is how our iron is mostly used; and you may well fear
that ere long none will be left for plough-shares, none for
hoes and mattocks. Happy, you would say, were the forbears
of our great-grandfathers, happy the days of old which under
Kings and Tribunes beheld Rome satisfied with a single gaol!
| 315 "His
alias poteram et pluris subnectere causas;
sed iumenta vocant et sol inclinat, eundum est;
nam mihi commota iam dudum mulio virga
adnuit. ergo vale nostri memor, et quotiens te
Roma tuo refici properantem reddet Aquino,
320 me quoque ad Helvinam Cererem vestramque Dianam
converte a Cumis. saturarum ego, ni pudet illas,
auditor gelidos veniam caligatus in agros."
315 "To these I might add
more and different reasons; but my cattle call, the sun is
sloping and I must away: my muleteer has long been signalling
to me with his whip. And so farewell; forget me not. And if
ever you run over from Rome to your own Aquinum to recruit,
summon me too from Cumae to your Helvine Ceres and Diana;
I will come over to your cold country in my thick boots to
hear your Satires, if they think me worthy of that honour."
 praestantius py : presentius
 quem y : cum
PAUBüch. and Housm.
 Büch. punctuates et
cur non? omnia cum sint.
 P defective here. Most MSS.
have aut for est. Housm. reads aut tibi.
 praeclarum P : Housm.
 hic conj. by Jahn and
confirmed by O and Vind.: haec F Büch.: Housm. conj.
 Housm. adopts the conj. quem
(Hadr. Valesius) : quae YPALO.
 Büch. and Owen read inflexu,
after PVind.y : Housm. in flexu. See Journal of Phil.
No. 67, p. 40.
 auditor PVind.Büch.
(1910): adiutor y Büch. (1893).
 A small island off Misenum.
 The noisiest street in Rome.
 The Porta Capena was on the
Appian Way, the great S. road from Rome. Over the gate passed
an aqueduct, carrying the water of the Aqua Marcia. Hence
"the dripping archway."
 A spear was set up at auctions
as the sign of ownership.
 Vertere pollicem,
to turn the thumb up, was the signal for dispatching the wounded
gladiator; premere pollicem, to turn it down, was a
sign that he was to be spared.
 Referring to the sambuca,
a kind of harp, of triangular shape, producing a shrill sound.
 Trechedipna, "a
run-to-dinner coat"; ceromaticus, from ceroma,
oil used by wrestlers; and niceterium, "a prize
of victory"-all used to ridicule the use of the Greek
 i.e. the Mona Viminalis,
from vimen, "an osier."
 An Assyrian rhetorician:
not the Greek orator Isaeus.
 From Johnson's London.
 Hercules slew Antaeus by
raising him from the ground, till when he was invincible.
 Names of Greek actors.
 Publius Egnatius Celer.
See Tac. Ann. xvi. 30-32 and Hist. iv. 10 and
 For the accusation and death
of Barea Soranus, see Tac. Ann. xvi. 23 and 33.
 i.e. at Tarsus on
the river Cydnus.
 Ladies of rank.
 P. Cornelius Scipio received
the image of Cybele when brought from Phrygia, B.C. 204.
 L. Caecilius Metellus, in
 The law of Otho (B.C. 67)
reserved for knights the first fourteen rows in the theatre
behind the orchestra where senators sat. The knights
(equites) were the wealthy middle class, each having
to possess a census of 400,000 sesterces.
 The rendering is uncertain.
Duff translates, "Take your money and keep your cake."
 At this feast cakes (liba)
are provided; but the guests are expected to give a tip to
the slaves. According to Duff, the client pays the slave,
but is too indignant to take the cake.
 Lit. "a slender flute-player";
props were so called either from their resemblance to a flute,
or to the position in which the flute was held in playing.
 Borrowed from Virgil, Aen.
ii. 311, of the firing of Troy, iam proximus ardet Vcalegon.
Juvenal's friend inhabits the third floor, and the fire has
broken out on the ground floor.
 Celebrated Greek sculptors.
 i.e. vegetarians.
 Probably the somnolent Emperor
Claudius is meant.
 The hundred guests are clients;
each is followed by a slave carrying a kitchener to keep the
dole hot when received.
 The great Roman general
under Claudius and Nero, famed for his physical strength.
 Compare xiv. 133.
 Proseucha, a Jewish
synagogue or praying-house.
 Aquinum was Juvenal's birthplace.
 The origin of this name
of Ceres is unknown.